LXC containers can be of two kinds:

  • Privileged containers
  • Unprivileged containers

The former can be thought as old-style containers, they're not safe at all and should only be used in environments where unprivileged containers aren't available and where you would trust your container's user with root access to the host.

The latter has been introduced back in LXC 1.0 (February 2014) and requires a reasonably recent kernel (3.13 or higher). The upside being that we do consider those containers to be root-safe and so, as long as you keep on top of kernel security issues, those containers are safe.

As privileged containers are considered unsafe, we typically will not consider new container escape exploits to be security issues worthy of a CVE and quick fix. We will however try to mitigate those issues so that accidental damage to the host is prevented.

Privileged containers

Privileged containers are defined as any container where the container uid 0 is mapped to the host's uid 0. In such containers, protection of the host and prevention of escape is entirely done through Mandatory Access Control (apparmor, selinux), seccomp filters, dropping of capabilities and namespaces.

Those technologies combined will typically prevent any accidental damage of the host, where damage is defined as things like reconfiguring host hardware, reconfiguring the host kernel or accessing the host filesystem.

LXC upstream's position is that those containers aren't and cannot be root-safe.

They are still valuable in an environment where you are running trusted workloads or where no untrusted task is running as root in the container.

We are aware of a number of exploits which will let you escape such containers and get full root privileges on the host. Some of those exploits can be trivially blocked and so we do update our different policies once made aware of them. Some others aren't blockable as they would require blocking so many core features that the average container would become completely unusable.

Unprivileged containers

Unprivileged containers are safe by design. The container uid 0 is mapped to an unprivileged user outside of the container and only has extra rights on resources that it owns itself.

With such container, the use of SELinux, AppArmor, Seccomp and capabilities isn't necessary for security. LXC will still use those to add an extra layer of security which may be handy in the event of a kernel security issue but the security model isn't enforced by them.

To make unprivileged containers work, LXC interacts with 3 pieces of setuid code:

  • lxc-user-nic (setuid helper to create a veth pair and bridge it on the host)
  • newuidmap (from the shadow package, sets up a uid map)
  • newgidmap (from the shadow package, sets up a gid map)

Everything else is run as your own user or as a uid which your user owns.

As a result, most security issues (container escape, resource abuse, ...) in those containers will apply just as well to a random unprivileged user and so would be a generic kernel security bug rather than a LXC issue.

LXC upstream is happy to help track such security issue and get in touch with the Linux kernel community to have them resolved as quickly as possible.

Potential DoS attacks

LXC doesn't pretend to prevent DoS attacks by default. When running multiple untrusted containers or when allowing untrusted users to run containers, one should keep a few things in mind and update their configuration accordingly:

Cgroup limits

LXC inherits cgroup limits from its parent, on my Linux distribution, there are no real limits set. As a result, a user in a container can reasonably easily DoS the host by running a fork bomb, by using all the system's memory or creating network interfaces until the kernel runs out of memory.

This can be mitigated by either setting the relevant lxc.cgroup configuration entries (memory, cpu and pids) or by making sure that the parent user is placed in appropriately configured cgroups at login time.

User limits

As with cgroups, the parent's limit is inherited so unprivileged containers cannot have ulimits set to values higher than their parent.

However there is one thing that's worth keeping in mind, ulimits are as their name suggest, tied to a uid at the kernel level. That's a global kernel uid, not a uid inside a user namespace.

That means that if two containers share through identical or overlapping id maps, a common kernel uid, then they also share limits, meaning that a user in a first container can effectively DoS the same user in another container.

To prevent this, untrusted users or containers ought to have entirely separate id maps (ideally of 65536 uids and gids each).

Shared network bridges

LXC sets up basic level 2 connectivity for its containers. As a convenience it also provides one default bridge on the system.

As a container connected to a bridge can transmit any level 2 traffic that it wishes, it can effectively do MAC or IP spoofing on the bridge.

When running untrusted containers or when allowing untrusted users to run containers, one should ideally create one bridge per user or per group of untrusted containers and configure /etc/lxc/lxc-usernet such that users may only use the bridges that they have been allocated.

Securing IPv6 Router Advertisements acceptance

In addition to this, one must take care to consider the possibility of containers modifying the LXC host's IPv6 routing table through IPv6 router advertisements. This is because the default LXC bridge is configured with IPv4 addresses only. This means that the value of /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/default/accept_ra is applied to the lxcbr0 interface. If it is a value > 0 then the LXC host will accept (potentially malicious) router advertisements from the containers connected to the bridge.

To avoid this you can either configure IPv6 addresses on the default bridge by setting the LXC_IPV6_* variables in /etc/default/lxc-net (this will enable /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/lxcbr0/forwarding which causes /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/lxcbr0/accept_ra to be effectively disabled if the value is 1. See for more info), or you can set the /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/default/accept_ra setting to 0 so that when lxcbr0 is created it's accept_ra is disabled. However if you are using IPv6 on the LXC host and relying on router advertisements from the external network then you should ensure that accept_ra is enabled for the external interface to avoid losing connectivity.

Reporting security issues

To ensure security issues can be fixed as quickly as possible and simultaneously in all Linux distributions, issues should be reported either:

We will then confirm the security issue, come up with fixes against all supported releases, provide you those patches for testing and then get a CVE assigned as well as a coordinated release date for you and the Linux distribution community.